Farming amidst climate change: The contextual vulnerability of farmers in Cotabato, Philippines


  • Thea Kersti Condes Tandog Department of Social Sciences, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of the Philippines Mindanao, Mintal, Davao City, Philippines
  • Leorence Condes-Tandog Graduate School, University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, Cotabato, Philippines



climate change impacts, climate change vulnerability, contextual vulnerability, farming communities, government’s action to climate change


This research investigated the contexts of farmers in Cotabato, Southern Philippines, and the various aspects of their vulnerability to climate change. The response of the government to address the climate vulnerability of farming communities was also examined. A mixed-methods approach that included document analysis, surveys, interviews, and focused group discussions was used to gather the data for the study. Salient themes from qualitative data were discussed side by side with the results generated from quantitative data. The different aspects of contextual vulnerability investigated—the nature of farming itself, population age groups, education, income, multiple deprivations, farm assets, farming practice, and limited government response—work together to characterize the vulnerabilities of farmers. They also exacerbate, compound, and reify each other. The susceptibilities and multiple deprivations of farmer households through limited formal education, poverty, and lack of social support challenge their adaptation and resilience to climate change. Farmers remain vulnerable to the impacts of climate change despite the existence of a government plan that recognizes their plight. A holistic view of these vulnerabilities is highly recommended in drafting programs and optimal solutions for the issues related to climate change.