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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • I, corresponding author on behalf of all contributing authors, hereby declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
  • have read the journal’s policies, and followed all instructions regarding authorship, plagiarism, conflicts of interest, copyright and permissions.
  • have made a significant contribution to the work reported (which could be in terms of research conception or design, data collection, analysis or interpretation).
  • share responsibility and accountability for the content of the article.
  • attest that the article is original and is our own work.
  • adhered to ethical protocols and standards in research.
  • declared any relevant conflicts of interest to the journal.
  • obtained written permission to reuse any figures, tables, or data sets.

Author Guidelines

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Focus and Scope

The Journal of Agricultural Research, Development, Extension and Technology (JARDET) is the official scientific publication of the University of Southern Mindanao (USM), Philippines. It is an annual, peer-reviewed journal in English that publishes reports of original research in agriculture and its allied fields including but not limited to animal science and aquaculture, agriculture-related social research, business, economics and management, education, engineering and computing, human ecology, food sciences, and veterinary and health sciences.

JARDET accepts original research papers and reviews. It welcomes submission from all sectors: authors, scientists, researchers, faculty from various institutions and agencies. One to two issues constitute a volume annually. 

Peer Review Policy

The Editorial Board facilitates the process of double-blind peer review. After a manuscript has been evaluated to be of sufficient quality and falls within the scope of the journal, the Board invites experts in the field of study to evaluate the manuscript. Each manuscript is reviewed by at least two experts. The Board then consolidates the comments and sends them to the author for any required revision. Only papers that address reviewers' comments are accepted for publication.

Copyright and Permissions

JARDET is an open-access publication. The Publisher applies Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license to all published manuscripts. Prior to publication, authors provide a formal written Consent to Publish and Transfer of Copyright form. The signed Consent ensures that the University of Southern Mindanao ("the Publisher") has the Author's permission to publish the relevant Contribution. The signed Transfer entitles the Publisher on behalf of the Author to protect the Contribution against unauthorized use, and to authorize the Publisher to disseminate the Contribution by means of archiving in the JARDET website database, offprints, legitimate photocopies, microform editions, reprints, translations, and secondary information sources such as abstracting and indexing services including databases. 

The author warrants that the article is an original work not published elsewhere in whole or in part, except in abstract form, and that the author has full power to make this grant.

Authors and co-authors retain the right to revise, adapt, modify, or otherwise use all or part of the article in future works of the author(s), such as press releases, lectures, and reviews, provided that all such use is for the personal non-commercial benefit of the author(s). All patent rights are retained by the author(s).

Open Access Policy

JARDET provides open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public to support greater global exchange of knowledge. The Publisher applies Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license to all published manuscripts. 

Article Processing Charge

At this time, JARDET has no Article Processing Charges at any stage of publication. 

Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement

Authors, editors and reviewers are expected to adhere to the code of conduct and best practice guidelines put forward by the Committee on Publication Ethics (

Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission’s compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).

Disclosure of the conflict of interest.

The submission file is in Microsoft Word document file format.

Where available, URLs or DOI for the references have been provided.

The text is double-spaced; uses a 12-point Arial font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, tables, and figures are placed at the end.

The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements.

Preparation of Manuscript

To ensure rapid and accurate publication, it is essential that manuscripts conform to the instructions below. Manuscripts which are not in accordance with the specifications and needs extensive editing will be returned to the authors.

A typical paper is composed of the following: a title page, abstract and keywords page, an introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, references, and supporting tables and figures.

Each article, including tables, figures and other appendices should not be more than 30 pages on A4 paper (210mm x 297mm or 8.27” x 11.69”). Specifications for the presentation of the manuscripts are:

Spacing, Font Size and Margins. Type the manuscript in Microsoft Word Document (2000 or 2007 Version), in double space, and with 12­point Arial font. Margins should be 2.54 cm (1”) on the top, bottom, and left­and­right­hand sides of each page.

Arrange contents of the manuscript for an original research article in the following order:

Title. The title of the article should be typed in sentence case letters, left aligned, and should not be more than 15 words.

The next line lists the authors, left aligned. Authors’ name should be complete. Omit institutional and social designations.

The next line lists the authors’ institutional affiliations(s) and address. Author affiliations are indicated by numbered superscripts and should be numbered in order of appearance in the list of authors.

The next line, lists the email address of the corresponding author, after the words Corresponding author email address, followed by a colon.

The next line contains a condensed running head. After the words Running Head, followed by a colon, provide a condensed title, limited to no more than 60 characters.

Abstract Page and Key words. The abstract serves as the summary, written in past tense, one paragraph of no more than 250 words, and must be on a separate page, along with the key words. It should include the rationale for the study, objectives and topics covered, a brief description of methods, results, and conclusions.

List about six keywords in alphabetical order. List single word, compound or phrases that represent the content of your manuscript.

Introduction. This section should contain the rationale, brief literature review, hypothesis, and objective(s) of the paper.

Materials and Methods. This should include details of the methodology for replicability, adoption or adaptation of the procedures for future studies. You should use subheadings to separate different methodologies. Describe established methods, and cite a reference where readers can find more detail. Standard techniques can simply be cited, even if small modifications have been made.

Results and Discussion. Results presented should be consistent with the objectives of the study. Use subheadings to separate the results of the different experiments. The combination of Results and Discussion is permitted. The conclusion part should include the implications of major findings of the study. Recommendations can be included.

Acknowledgement. This section should indicate the source(s) of funds and institutions or individuals who helped in the study.

References. List references in alphabetical order by main author’s last name. Give complete information. Ensure that it generally adheres to American Psychological Association (APA) reference style. Reference should be cited in the text by the last name of the author (both authors when only two; first author et al. when more than two) and year, for example (Taiz & Zeiger, 2006). Do not number literature cited. It is the author’s responsibility to maintain the consistency between the in-text citations and the end list of literature cited. Examples of the end literature citation are:

Book - Taiz, L. & Zeiger, E. (2006). Plant physiology (4th Ed). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates Inc.

Book Chapter - Giller, K.E., McDonagh, J.F. & Cadish G. (1994). Can biological nitrogen fixation sustain agriculture in the tropics? In J.K. Syers & D. L. Rimmer (Eds.). Soil science and sustainable land management in the tropics (pp. 173–191). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Editor - Balasubramanian, V., Ladha, J.K. & Denning, G.L. (Eds.) (1999). Resource management in rice: Nutrients. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Journal article - Cabasan, M.T.N., Kumar, A. & De Waele, D. (2018). Evaluation of resistance and tolerance of rice genotypes from crosses of Oryza glaberrima and O. sativa to the rice root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola. Tropical Plant Pathology, 43, 230–241.

Journal article from online database - Author. (Year of publication). Title of the article. Title of the Journal, volume #, page #. DOI.

Online book (electronic text or part of a book) - Author. (Date of publication). Title of the book. <URL>.Database name or website.

Organization as author - Department of Agriculture–Bureau of Agricultural Statistics [DA-BAS]. 2006. Crops Statistics of the Philippines 2001-2006. Diliman, Quezon City. 300 p.

Paper in proceeding - Virmani, S.S. (2001). Opportunities and challenges of developing and using hybrid rice technology in the tropics. In S.B. Peng & B. Hardy (Eds.). Rice research for food security and poverty alleviation (Proceedings of International Rice Conference). Manila: Philippines. p. 407.

Personal communication should not be included in the end list of literature cited but can be included in the text as - Santos, 2008 (personal communication) or (Santos, 2008; pers. comm.).

Thesis or Dissertation - Sastri, A.V.B. (2006). Effects of co-solvents on the transesterification reaction time and reduction of free glycerin content or methyl ester produced from coconut oil. [MS Thesis] College, Laguna, Philippines: University of the Philippines Los Baños.   

Web page - Author. (Update date). Title of the document. Title of complete work. <URL>. Date accessed.

Tables - Tables must be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals according to sequence mentioned in the manuscript. Acronyms or abbreviations should be spelled-out or defined in a footnote. Appropriate quantities and units in SI (Systeme International), and other qualifications should be indicated within the table or footnote to make the table a “stand alone” source of information. Do not incorporate tables in the text as this will be done by the Journal staff at the later stages of processing.

Figures - Figures must be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals according to the sequence mentioned in the manuscript. Figure with captions should be placed in separate pages. Acronyms or abbreviations should be spelled out or defined in a figure caption. Submit graphs in Microsoft Excel files to facilitate formatting by the Journal staff at the later stages of processing. Submit images in separate files in jpeg or tiff with resolutions not less than 300 dpi.

Pagination and line numbers. Number all pages of the manuscript consecutively at the right hand bottom corner of each page. In addition, provide continuous line numbers at the left side of the manuscript.

Numbers. Avoid starting a sentence with a number. Spell out numerals from one to nine, except followed by standard units of measure, and indefinite and appropriate measure period of time. Ordinal numbers should be treated as cardinal numbers (e.g. 8th, 18th). Exceptions are numbers in tables, figures, graphs, and those in parenthesis.

Fractions. Spell out and hyphenate fractions (e.g. two-thirds). Exceptions are fractions in tables, figures, graphs, legends and those in parenthesis. 

Unit and Symbols. Use recommended SI units and symbols. Use exponents instead of slash (e.g. kg ha-1). Use words when unit of measure is not involved (e.g. grams per panicle). In the case of range of values, indicate the unit at the end of the range (e.g. 10-15 t ha-1).

Avoid beginning a sentence with a symbol. Use percent symbol (%) with figures only (e.g. 5%), spell it out (percent) with written numbers. Indicate the US$ equivalent of other currencies at the first mention in the text, or indicate in a footnote in a table or a figure, if applicable.

Abbreviations and Acronyms. Spell out abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text (e.g. ATP for Adenosine Triphosphate, HYV for High Yielding Varieties). Spell out abbreviations that are not generally known or specifically used in the paper at the first mentioned in the text. Commonly used abbreviations (e.g. ANOVA, DMRT, IQ, LSD, SD etc.) need not be spelled out. For scientific names, shorten the generic name to the first letter followed by the species, by the 2nd time they are used. Spell out units of measure with five or less letters (when singular) as year, month, etc., except when preceded by a numeral from measurement. Abbreviate minute (min.), second (s), hectare (ha), kilometer (k) and the rest, particularly for SI units. No period is needed at the end of each abbreviation and do not add “s” to the plural form.

Submission. A manuscript can be submitted via the journal website or send as an email attachment to [email protected]. Each manuscript is assigned a unique article ID upon receipt by the editorial staff.

Refereeing and Editing

A manuscript received by the journal undergoes first screening (pre-review) by the Editor-In-Chief (EiC) for basic science and format. If extensive corrections are required (e.g., to bring the manuscript into JARDET style), manuscripts are returned to the author for revision prior to being sent out for review. Referees are chosen by the EIC or by associate editors or members of the editorial board. The manuscript is then sent to the two reviewers in a double-blind review process if found sufficient in form.

Proof and Reprints

Galley proofs are sent to the corresponding author along with the Copyright Form. It is the responsibility of authors to carefully read the proofs and to return them promptly to the Managing Editor (within 72 hours of receipt). Authors should answer all questions from the printer and technical editor. Corrected proofs are uploaded in the journal’s website and tagged as “article in press” until issue and page assignments are finalized by the editorial team.


Publication Staff are expected to respect and uphold the confidential status of materials submitted to the Journal and should ensure that material remains confidential.

Publication Ethics

Authorship. Every author listed on a journal article should have made a significant contribution to the work reported. This could be in terms of research conception or design, or acquisition of data, or the analysis and interpretation of data. As an author or co-author, you share responsibility and accountability for the content of the article. Where two or more authors have prepared an article, JARDET requires a designated Corresponding Author. In signing a Publishing Agreement, the Corresponding Author warrants that:

All named co-authors have authorized her or him to act as an agent on their behalf.

All named co-authors have authorized her or him to sign the Publishing Agreement on their behalf.

All named co-authors have agreed the order of names given in the article.

Addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list if any, cannot be made after the manuscript has been accepted, subject to the approval of the journal Editor. To request such change, the corresponding author must submit to the Editor: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) e-mail confirmation from all authors that they agree with the changes.

Plagiarism. For originality, the editors use Similarity Detection software to help compare the text of submitted papers for similarity prior to the review process. A 20% or less similarity is acceptable for JARDET publication, otherwise authors need to revise their papers.

Use of AI tools. The utilization of Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools is permissible solely to improve readability and language. JARDET follows the COPE guidelines and policies regarding the use of AI tools.

Conflicts of interest. The conflict of interest should be declared on the cover letter or on the manuscript submission form in the journal’s online peer-review system. If there is no disclosure, the following statement will be published: “No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.”

Reporting Cases of Research Misconduct or Violations of Publication Ethics. To report suspected or verified research misconduct or violations of publication ethics, the first course of action is to notify the JARDET Editor-in-Chief through email at [email protected]. JARDET Editorial Board Members consult COPE resources for guidance to address the misconduct or violation. JARDET updates the affected parties and processes erratum, corrigendum, or retraction as necessary.

Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.