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Author Guidelines



The Journal of Agricultural Research, Development, Extension and Technology (JARDET) is the official scientific publication of the University of Southern Mindanao (USM), a state university in Kabacan, North Cotabato, Philippines. It is an annual, peer-reviewed journal in English that publishes reports of original research and extension in the following fields - agriculture and its allied fields including but not limited to animal science and aquaculture, arts and sciences, business, economics and management, education, engineering and computing, human ecology and food sciences and veterinary science. The JARDET aims to cater to general readership thus the wide and broad composition of its Board of Reviewers and welcomes submission from all sectors: authors, scientists, researchers, faculty from various institutions and agencies both here and abroad. One or two issues constitute a volume annually but supplements may be issued anytime of the year as necessary. Reviewers from outside of USM are primarily tapped to ensure quality of papers published.

Submit via an email attachment to:

The Editor
Journal of Agricultural Research, Development, Extension and Technology
University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, North Cotabato 9407, Philippines
Email: jardet@usm.edu.ph

To ensure rapid and accurate publication, it is essential that manuscripts conform to the instructions below. Manuscripts which are not in accordance with the specifications and needs extensive editing will be returned to the authors.

Preparation of Manuscript

Each article, including tables, figures and other appendices should not be more than 30 pages using an A4 paper (220mm x 297mm or 8.27” x 11.69”).

Spacing, Font Size and Margins

Type the manuscript in Microsoft Word Document, in double space, and with 12-point Arial font. Margins should be 2.54 cm (1”) on the top, bottom, and left-and right hand sides with number line in each page and in one column body text.

Order and Contents

Arrange contents of the manuscript in the following order:

The title of the article should be typed in sentence case letters, and should not be more than 15 words. Indicate the running title (not more than 40 letters) to be placed on the inner corner of each page;

Author(s); Name(s) and Address(es)
Should be complete with acronyms spelled out. Omit institutional and social designations, and indicate the corresponding author with email address;

Should be in alphabetical order. List single word, compound or phrases that indicate major subjects, and concepts or ideas that are related or implied in the paper with at least 5 words; 

Summarize the rationale, methodology, major findings, and conclusions in not more than 300 words;

Should contain rationale, hypothesis, and objective(s) of the paper;


Should include details of the methodology for replicability, adoption or adaptation of the procedures for future studies. Cite if the procedure has been published elsewhere;

Results and Discussion
Results presented should be consistent with the objectives of the study. Discussion should be done for integration purposes, i.e. within the results of the study or with reference to other studies;

Should include the implications of major findings of the study. Recommendations can be included.

Indicate the source(s) of funds and institutions or individuals who helped in the study;

Literature Cited

List literature cited in alphabetical order by main author’s last name. Give complete information. Reference should be cited in the text by the last name of the author (both authors when only two; first author et al. when more than two) and year, example (Taiz & Zeiger, 2006). Do not number literature cited. It is the author’s responsibility to maintain the consistency between the in-text citations and the end list of literature cited. Examples of the end literature citation are:


Taiz, L. & Zeiger, E. (2006). Plant physiology (4th Ed). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates Inc.

Book Chapter

Giller, K.E., McDonagh, J.F., & Cadish G. (1994). Can biological nitrogen fixation sustain agriculture in the tropics? In J.K. Syers & D. L. Rimmer (Eds.). Soil science and sustainable land management in the tropics (pp. 173–191). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.


Balasubramanian, V., Ladha, J.K. & Denning, G.L. (Eds.) (1999). Resource management in rice: Nutrients. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Journal article

Cabasan, M.T.N., Kumar, A., & De Waele, D. (2018). Evaluation of resistance and tolerance of rice genotypes from crosses of Oryza glaberrima and O. sativa to the rice root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola. Tropical Plant Pathology, 43, 230–241.

Journal article from online database

Author. (Year of publication). Title of the article. Title of the Journal, volume #, page #. DOI.

Online book (electronic text or part of a book)

Author. (Date of publication). Title of the book. <URL>. Database name or website.

Organization as author

Department of Agriculture–Bureau of Agricultural Statistics [DA-BAS].     2006.     Crops Statistics of the Philippines 2001-2006. Diliman, Quezon City. 300 p.

Paper in proceeding

Virmani, S.S. (2001). Opportunities and challenges of developing and using hybrid rice technology in the tropics. In S.B. Peng & B. Hardy (Eds.). Rice research for food security and poverty alleviation (Proceedings of International Rice Conference). Manila: Philippines. p. 407.

Thesis or Dissertation

Sastri, A.V.B. (2006). Effects of co-solvents on the transesterification reaction time and reduction of free glycerin content or methyl ester produced from coconut oil. [MS Thesis] College, Laguna, Philippines: University of the Philippines Los Baños.   

Web page

Author. (Update date). Title of the document. Title of complete work. <URL>. Date accessed.

Personal communication should NOT be included in the end list of literature cited but can be       included in the text as - Santos, 2008 (personal communication) or (Santos, 2008; pers. comm.).

Tables - Number the figures consecutively in Roman numerals. Tables should have a legend (if necessary). Acronyms or abbreviations should be spelled out or defined in a footnote. Appropriate quantities and units in SI (Systeme International), and other qualifications should be indicated within the table or footnote to
make the table a “stand alone” source of information. Letters in the table caption should be in Arial 10-point font (but can be reduced to a readable size if necessary). Do not incorporate tables in the text as this will be done by the JARDET at the later stages of processing.

Figures - Number the figures consecutively in Roman numerals. Figure should have a legend (if necessary). Acronyms or abbreviations should be spelled out or defined in a footnote. Appropriate quantities and units in SI, and other qualifications should be indicated to make the figure a “stand alone” source of information. Figures should fit in the text area. Letters in the figure caption should be in Arial 10-point font (but can be reduced to a readable size if necessary). Submit graphs in Microsoft Excel to facilitate JARDET corrections and manipulations at the later stages of the processing. Photographs should be clear and should be submitted in a jpeg format at 300 dpi. Do not incorporate figures in the text as this will be done by the JARDET at the later stages of the processing.

The above order and contents do not apply to reviews, research or short notes.

Pagination. Number all pages of the manuscript consecutively at the right hand bottom corner of each page.

Numbers. Avoid beginning a sentence with a number. Spell out numerals from one to nine, except followed by standard units of measure, and indefinite and appropriate measure periods of time. Ordinal numbers should be treated as cardinal numbers (e.g. 8th,18th). Exceptions are numbers in tables, figures, graphs,
and those in parenthesis.

Fractions. Spell out and hyphenate fractions (e.g. two-thirds). Exceptions are fractions in tables, figures, graphs, legends and those in parenthesis. 

Unit and Symbols. Use recommended SI units and symbols. Use exponents instead of slash (e.g. kg ha-1). Use words when unit of measures is not involved (e.g. grams per panicle). In the case of range of values, indicate the unit at the end of the range (e.g. 10-15 t ha-1).

Avoid beginning a sentence with a symbol. Use percent symbol (%) with figures only (e.g. 5%), spell it out (percent) with written numbers. Indicate the US$ equivalent of other currencies at the first mention in the text, or indicate in a footnote in a table or a figure, if applicable.

Abbreviations and Acronyms. Spell out abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text (e.g. ATP for Adenosine Triphosphate, HYV for High Yielding Varieties). Spell out abbreviations that are not generally known or specifically used in the paper at the first mentioned in the text. Commonly
used abbreviations (e.g. ANOVA, DMRT, IQ, LSD, SD et.). need not be spelled out. For scientific names, shorten the generic name to the first letter followed by the species, by the 2nd time they are used. Spell out units of measure with five or less letters (when singular) as year, month, etc., except when preceded by a numeral from measurement. Abbreviate minute (min), second (s), hectare (ha), kilometer (k) and the rest, particularly for SI units. No period is needed at the end of each abbreviation and do not add “s” to the plural form.

The JARDET generally adheres to the Council of Science Editor (CSE) in Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (7th Ed., 2006).

Refereeing and Editing
Each manuscript submitted will be reviewed by two referees. The referees are asked to recommend to the Editors that a paper be accepted for publication, accepted after revision or rejected. A decision to accept the advise of the Referees to reject a paper is taken only after the paper has been read by two of the
Editors. The Editors reserve the rights to make alterations in manuscript submitted for publications. Such alterations will be made if manuscripts do not conform to the accepted scientific standards or if they contain matter which in the opinion of the editors is unnecessary verbose or repetitive. Papers that need extensive
alteration will be returned to the Authors for checking and retyping. The contents of the paper are the sole responsibility of the Author(s) and should not be construed to reflect the opinion of the Editor(s) and/or the Journal for Agricultural Research, Development, Extension and Technology.

Proof and Reprints
Galley proofs are sent to the authors for correction of printer’s and similar errors. Avoid major alteration of the original text. Return proofs within 7 days. Reprints maybe ordered at the Author’s expense at the proof stage.




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